E-bikes are regulated like bicycles. The same rules of the road apply to both e-bikes and human-powered bicycles.
E-bikes are not subject to the registration, licensing, or insurance requirements that apply to motor vehicles.
Maryland designates three classes of e-bikes:
Class 1: : Bicycle equipped with a motor that provides assistance only when the rider is pedaling, and that ceases to provide assistance when the e-bike reaches 20 mph.
Class 2: Bicycle equipped with a throttle-actuated motor, and that ceases to provide assistance when the e-bike reaches 20 mph.
Class 3: Bicycle equipped with a motor that provides assistance only when the rider is pedaling, and that ceases to provide assistance when the e-bike reaches 28 mph.
Class 3 e-bikes are not allowed on a bicycle path unless it is adjacent to a highway or right-of-way, or they are specifically allowed by the local authority or state agency with jurisdiction.
E-bikes are not permitted on sidewalks unless expressly allowed
The local authority or state agency with jurisdiction can restrict where e-bikes are allowed to ride. When in doubt, check locally for local rules and regulations.
You must be 16 or older to operate a class 3 e-bike, although a person under 16 may ride a class 3 e-bike as a passenger.
On federal, state, county and local trails, e-mountain bike (eMTB) access varies significantly.
Generally, any natural surface trail that is designated as open to both motorized and non-motorized uses is also open to eMTBs.
eMTBs may not be allowed on trails managed for non-motorized activities.
Do not ride your eMTB in areas where the local rules are unclear. Ride legally and only on authorized trails to show that mountain bikers are responsible trail users.
When in doubt, ask your local land manager about access to specific trails. Local land rules change frequently.
MARYLAND'S E-BIKE LAW FOR TRAILS
LOCAL: Consult your local land management agency.
STATE: The Maryland Park Service’s current position is that e-bikes are motorized bicycles, and for access purposes, managed alongside dirtbikes, quads, etc. on Maryland state lands. Contact the department for the most up to date information.
FEDERAL: There is little federal land managed for recreation in Maryland. As of August 29th 2019 all eBikes up to 750 watt can now access Federal Lands and natural parks anywhere a regular bicycle can access. The one exception is National Forests, the forests are managed by the Department of Agriculture and these changes are not implemented yet on the forests. Changes are happening to align all Federal land to the recent Order.